There are many terms used for this spectrum of related developmental hip problems in infants and children. These are often present at birth. Most recently the term “Developmental Hip Dysplasia” is being used, as there is evidence to suggest that while many hip disorders, (ranging from full dislocation, to unstable shallow sockets) are present at birth, some children with apparently normal hips go on to develop problems in the first year of life.
In simple terms, dysplasia means “growing abnormally”. Compared to adults, an infant’s hip sockets are made up of a greater proportion of softer, more pliable cartilage in relation to bone. This means that it is easier, anatomically, for the ball (the femoral head) to slip out of of the socket (the acetabulum) and be misaligned (subluxated) or fully dislocated. A normally formed hip joint will not encounter problems, but this softer structure, in combination with an abnormal socket shape, explains why some joints will dislocate.
In a child who has an abnormally developed hip joint, the combination of the shallow angle of the socket and the softer structure means that the ball (femoral head) is not held securely within the socket and can become misaligned and even slip out if the joint is placed under downward strain. If it does not slip back in, it is a dislocated joint and will need intervention.
The causes for hip dysplasia are poorly understood. There seems to be an increased risk if there is a positive family history of hip dysplasia. Female babies seem to be 4-5 times more at risk than males, and several factors in pregnancy seem to be relevant. For example,
seem to be related to the presence of dysplasia. The left hip seems to be more frequently involved than the right. Furthermore, the growing baby is exposed to the mother’s oestrogen hormones. Oestrogen is thought to encourage ligament relaxation near the time of delivery, which may help with giving birth, but potentially may also cause the baby’s hip ligaments to be somewhat lax and increase the risk of an unstable joint.
These are not risks that a parent has any control over, clearly.
However, there are studies that strongly suggest that some cultures who swaddle their infants tightly (such as the Native American societies prior to the 1950?s, and some Japanese societies) have a far greater incidence of developmental hip dysplasia and childhood hip dislocation. It is interesting to see that once the Najavo Indian culture, (who carried their babies tightly bound on cradle boards with their legs straightened ie extended and adducted), adopted bulky cloth nappies, the incidence of childhood hip dislocation decreased dramatically, even though they continued to use the cradle boards. This was due to the nappies encouraging the babies’ legs to be held in a more natural flexed and abducted position (like a spread squat, as if child held on hip with legs around parent). African cultures, who do not swaddle their babies, and carry them constantly astride their backs from birth, have a very low incidence of hip dysplasia. You can read a couple of very helpful scholarly articles here and here for more information.
“Hence it appears logical to discourage putting the baby’s legs in the extended position, and encourage keeping the baby’s hips spread apart. This latter position places the head of the femur (the ball) against the acetabulum (the socket), and encourages deepening of the socket.” (Quote from Orthoseek– a source of authoritative information on paediatric orthopaedics.)
So, a parent can potentially reduce the small risk of hip dysplasia by carefully considering some of the practices they adopt.
Diagnosis: Most suspected cases of hip dysplasia are picked up at birth or at the six week check, by physical examination, but some cases are missed, sometimes with significant consequences. There is a strong case for routine ultrasound screening for hip dysplasia, as comprehensive ultrasound screening during the immediate newborn period has demonstrated hip laxity in approximately 15% of infants (Rosendahl K, et al. Pediatrics 1994;94:47-52)
Treatment: Mild cases can be managed by “double diapering” to keep hips in the flexed, abducted spread squat position. More severe cases may need splinting with a Pavlik harness and sometimes surgery is required. Many children respond very well to this and lead normal lives. If left untreated, and picked up later in childhood (eg a limp) developmental hip dysplasia can have chronic consequences, such differences in leg length, awkward gaits or decreased agility. Older children may even develop early arthritis of the hip. Sometimes complex surgery is needed.
It isn’t fully clear exactly how large a role the choices parents make (eg swaddling, cloth nappy use, carrying in an appropriate sling) have on the likelihood of hip problems later in life. Some babies are not diagnosed straight away, so may unwittingly benefit from good hip positioning in the early months of life. Furthermore, by 6 months of age, the risk of hip dysplasia has largely passed, and by one year children are stronger, better developed, and able to place their hips in a healthy position themselves when required for comfort (ie pull their knees up or ask to get down).
It would seem sensible, therefore, at least in the early months of life, to encourage babies and small children to have their hips held in a healthy position, that is less likely to place strain on lax ligaments or possibly shallow hip sockets. A good, wide-based sling or carrier can assist with this healthy hip position. This will also be more comfortable for the child – consider perching on or astride a stool versus sitting on a chair or even in a hammock!
Much debate has been held on the role that narrow -based carriers (such as the Baby Bjorn, Mamas and Papas, and several backpack style framed carriers) may have on the worsening of pre-existing, undiagnosed hip dysplasia, or promoting its development in normal hips.
The simple answer is “Probably not, in the majority of cases.” This assumes your child is not one of the postulated 15% of infants whose condition is missed by health care professionals (however well-meaning).
Parents of children with normal, non-dysplastic joints are unlikely to “cause” hip dysplasia by choosing to use one of these narrow-based baby carriers, but these designs do not, on the whole, promote the flexed, abducted spread-squat position that seems to encourage better hip joint positioning and deeper development of the socket. A baby carrier that supports baby’s thighs from beneath (“knee to knee”) is more likely to keep hips in this optimal position, and reduce strain on still-developing joints. It is interesting to note that the bigger brands have begun to redesign their carriers to be more broad at the base.
Most professionally-trained babywearing consultants will advocate the thighs being supported right into the knee pits into an M shape, with knees held higher than the bottom (nearer to an imaginary horizontal line out from the belly button). This puts the femoral head into an ideal central position in the socket, and is the position adopted by the Pavlik Harness as you can see above.
Here is a drawing that shows the two most typically seen positions, and then the ideal hip position in a baby carrier (click to enlarge)
1) Classic high-street narrow-based carrier. The legs are hanging downwards, entirely unsupported. The infantile hip-socket is taking the full weight of the legs and there will be a lot of unhelpful strain.
2) A slightly wider-based baby carrier. This is better, but the legs are still not well supported with the knees lower than the bottom. The weight of the unsupported leg will drag down on the still-forming hip joint.
3) A properly fitting, wide-based baby carrier. Observe the M-shape that has been created, with the thighs securely supported all the way to the knees, which are held above the bottom. The hip joints are in the optimal position, and there is no weight at all dragging down on the joint. Orthopaedic consultants recommend thighs to be resting at an angle of 100 degrees from the midline.
4) Side on view of the M-shape position, showing how there is no downward strain on the socket.
All safe babywearing is to be celebrated and encouraged! Using a narrow-based carrier will not harm the majority of children (see above), so if you have one already, there are a few things you can do to improve your child’s comfort such as using a scarf tucked into the seat, as in this video. This will encourage a change of position from legs hanging straight downwards (extended and adducted) to supported knee to knee (flexed and abducted) in the M shape, as discussed above. It is, however, only a temporary solution – I would advise you to use a wider-based carrier.
To reproduce the hip-healthy M shape, when putting a child into a carrier, tilt their pelvises inwards slightly and push the feet below their bent knees upwards to encourage flexion. All babies are different, and some will naturally spread their legs more widely than others. NEVER force your baby’s legs to move into a position that does not come easily.
If you don’t yet have a sling for your baby, go for a soft one that is well designed to both promote healthy hip M-position and encourage the natural C-spine shape that young children have. The secondary curves begin to develop later on in life – the cervical curve when they gain head control and can lift against gravity, and the lumbar curve at the crawling/walking stage . Until then, spines should not be artificially kept straight (ie babies should avoid too much time in rigid car seats, stiff inflexible carriers, or lying supine on their backs).
It is worth remembering that well-designed slings that focus on supporting a child’s legs and curved spine can be used in a less than ideal way. It is possible to use a good tool in a less than optimum manner, especially when in a hurry, so it is worth taking your time to position the sling well and to be actively aware of your child’s hip and spine positions when putting the sling on.
Examples of suitable slings (this list is not exhaustive and is merely a guide). See your local sling meet/consultant/library for more help and advice
Ring slings or Scootababy hip carrier
Wide-based buckled carriers (please note this is NOT exhaustive)
Mei tais and Half-Buckles (again, not an exhaustive list)
Small babies, sadly, all too soon grow into big babies, with longer legs, and can start to out-grow their slings in terms of thigh support along to the knees. And then they start to toddle! When a child can stand unaided and walk, he will have the muscle and ligament strength to bear the weight of his own legs well, so full knee-to-knee is less important for toddlers, but for smaller babies, helping to support their legs is important. You may need a wider sling, or you can adjust the one you have already with a helpful scarf – there is a great video here from Slingababy.
Please note that we here at Carry Me Away believe that the Pikkolo and Ball Baby Mei Tais also meet the criteria listed here. They are less widely distributed in the UK, where this author lives.